New insight into a plant's respiratory system, responsible for creating it's energy, has been discovered according to elifesciences.org which just recently published these findings in an article called Atomic Structures of Respiratory Complex III2, Complex IV, and Supercomplex III2-IV from Vascular Plants. Research done by the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at University of California Davis in California, has discovered the complex structures of atomic proteins that make up the respiratory system of a plant.
Like many other living creatures, plants use their respiratory system to garner energy. While other organisms' complex respiratory systems have been well studied, the underlying structures of plant's system has been challenging to view, until now.
Plants first use photosynthesis to convert sunlight into sugar, and then use their respiratory system to change the sugar into energy. This happens with the help of mitochondria, the part of the cell that helps turn food into energy, which is involved with five protein assemblies in the plant's respiratory system, creating an electron train to create energy.
Scientists did not know what a plant's respiratory system atomic structure actually looked like until this study, which uncovered three of the five protein assemblies involved. Using mung beans, they extracted mitochondria complexes, washed them with a mild detergent and stabilized them, then used cryo-electron microscopy to reveal their highly detailed 3D structures. The three newly revealed atomic structures are called complex III, complex IV and supercomplex III-IV. Based on the knowledge of these structures, the scientists then created models to test interactions with other molecules, find additional subunits, test binding ability and test the structural flexibility of the assemblies.
"Understanding how plant respiratory complexes work could lead to improvements in crop yields or, since respiration is required for survival, result in the development of herbicides that block respiration in plants more effectively and specifically. Further researching the structure of the plant respiratory complexes and supercomplexes could also shed light on how plants adapt to different environments, including how they change to survive global warming."
Their research also showed that there are shared aspects of respiratory structures between plants, mammals, bacteria, and fungi that previously were thought to exist only in plants. They also found some of the structures were actually unique to plants. This is important because many herbicides and pesticides used in agriculture are made to interfere with the respiratory system of pests and this could help make them more effective and less harmful to crops.
"Our work provides high-resolution structures of plant respiratory complexes that reveal plant-specific features, allowing for the development of more selective inhibitors as herbicides and pesticides," concludes senior author James Letts, Assistant Professor at the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, UC Davis, US. "Further comparative analyses of these structures with the growing number of respiratory complexes will allow us to understand the fundamental principles of respiration across the tree of life."
Read the full study here:https://elifesciences.org/articles/62047
Trees add value to your property and are a great investment when improving your landscape. Not only do they add immense beauty, fruit, flowers, shade and more, they also help clean the air that we breathe. Planting trees should be a priority for all communities. Choosing the right tree for your property depends on several different factors.
Luckily, the Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute located at Cal Poly in California, has a data base that will help you select the proper tree for your location and your needs. You can search the site by entering your zip code and the attributes of the tree that you want here: ufei.calpoly.edu/index.lasso
Planting Your Tree
Once you have selected the tree that is best for your property, it’s time to plant! Like everything else, there is a right way and a wrong way to do this. Following the correct planting steps is important to growing a healthy tree.
First, make sure you select the right location in your yard for your tree. Make sure the tree you are planting has plenty of room and will not outgrow its location. Then determine that the soil in which you are planting is compatible with the tree you have chosen. Also, make sure that your tree will have the right amount of sun and shade that is recommended for your particular type of tree.
Prepare a hole that is twice as wide as the root ball (some landscaping experts recommend a wider hole, up to three times as wide.) A wide hole will insure fast growth of the tree. The depth of the hole should be determined by the height of the root ball. The right depth will prevent settling.
Remove the plastic or wire basket and/or burlap from the root ball.
Add a starter fertilizer and fill around the root ball with the soil you removed for planting.
Deep water the tree, and water each day for seven days; then water twice a week for week two, and once a week afterwards.
Care and Feeding
It is important to know that mulching is very important to the health of your newly planted tree. Mulch acts to retain water, preventing the roots from drying out, and provide protection from the heat and cold. It keeps weeds away from the tree roots and prevents compaction of the soil around the tree. There are different types of mulch available.
For newly planted trees, water right after planting. Not enough water will damage a tree, but over-watering is harmful as well. The proper amount of watering can be determined by feeling the soil around the tree. The soil should be moist but not soggy. Allowing the soil to dry for a short time between waterings, is good for the tree because it allows the soil to oxygenate.
Consider a drip system with smart controller to efficiently water your newly planted tree and landscape, saving water and money. There are rebates available in many counties throughout California to help implement these systems.
After the first two years, the root structure of the tree should be well established and will not need the kind of monitoring that a newly planted tree requires.
Care must be taken when pruning newly planted trees because poor pruning can damage a tree for the rest of its life. The pruning of these young trees should be done to remove remove dead or broken branches. More aggressive pruning should wait until the tree is two to three years old.
Signs of a Healthy Tree
Is There New Growth: If you have had your tree for a year or more, there should be new growth appearing each year.
Check for Dead or Broken Branches: Since dead and broken branches invite insects and make the tree more susceptible to disease, they should be pruned off. Hint: If a branch is green underneath the bark when scraped with your fingernail, it is alive.
Check the Tree’s Bark: The bark should be intact. If it is loose or peeling, there is probably a problem. The truck should not have large cracks or holes and should be free of fungi.
Examine the Leaves: Leaves should be the appropriate color for the season. Wilting of the leaves indicate stress caused by too little or too much watering, or too much or too little sun. Evergreens should not have bare patches without needles, and deciduous trees should be full of leaves in the blooming season. Areas where leaves are missing can indicate damage or disease.
A proper tree care program will allow fluid growth patterns and wind penetration. This will condition your trees for long term healthy development. All of our pruning practices are based upon the International Society of Arboriculture industry standards.
Our Pacific Vista Landscape Service professionals will provide your property with a complete inventory of all trees and organize these trees on a multiple year tree care plan. We will place the trees on an appropriate plan to best suit a given species.
Contact us or call us today! 661-222-7525
A Great Addition to Your California Landscape
Mulberry trees are native to the midwest and China, but do well in California too! There are fruitless and fruit-bearing mulberry trees, all of which are fast growing and do well in drought conditions.
Mulberry trees love lots of sun and can grow well from a cutting. It is a deciduous tree that starts to produce fruit at a young age and can live over 75 years. The fruitless variety is used to feed silk worms. They can get very large and can be as wide as they are tall. This makes them a great shade tree!
The fruit-bearing trees are special. Mulberries are high in antioxidants, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Iron, Fiber, Riboflavin, Magnesium, and Potassium. Dr. Oz calls the mulberries a “super-food” that also provides protein. The juicy berries can be white, red, and very dark purple, and look similar to blackberries. They are also great for attracting birds to your garden.
Keep in mind that since they are fast growing, they can damage hardscapes, like walkways, with their roots. Also, the fruit can be messy during the spring to summer yield, so another reason to plant them away from walkways.
At Pacific Vista Landscape Services, our professionals are experts not only with soft and hard landscapes, but trees of all kinds. We offer a tree maintenance program to keep your trees healthy for years!
Call us today at 1-661-222-7525